注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

liusongjifan2的博客

读书是同智者交流;读书是对神奇世界的探访;读书是和挚友娓娓谈心 !

 
 
 

日志

 
 

【转载】完美小睡指南A Field Guide To The Perfect Nap  

2015-12-26 15:37:57|  分类: 医学知识 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

完美小睡指南A Field Guide To The Perfect Nap 

[复制链接]
电梯直达跳转到指定楼层
1#
【转载】完美小睡指南A Field Guide To The Perfect Nap - liusongjifan2 - liusongjifan2的博客 发表于 2013-9-17 15:21:20 | 只看该作者 |只看大图 回帖奖励 [网页划词启用]
【转载】完美小睡指南A Field Guide To The Perfect Nap - liusongjifan2 - liusongjifan2的博客

        There's an art to napping.  
        小睡是一门艺术。  
        Studies have found different benefits -- and detriments -- to a nap's timing, duration and even effect on different people, depending on one's age and possibly genetics.  
        诸多研究已发现,小睡的时间点、时间长短甚至对不同人的影响都是各有利弊,这取决于个人的年龄也许还有在基因。  
        'Naps are actually more complicated than we realize,' said David Dinges, a sleep scientist at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine. 'You have to be deliberative about when you're going to nap, how long you're going to nap and if you're trying to use the nap relative to work or what you have coming up.'  
        宾夕法尼亚大学佩雷尔曼医学院(Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine)的睡眠科学家戴维?丁格斯(David Dinges)说:“小睡实际上比我们所认识的更复杂。如果你想通过小睡来更好地应付相关工作或接下来的事情,那对于什么时候小睡、睡多长时间你应该审慎一些。”  
        A snooze on the couch on a Sunday afternoon may seem like the perfect way for a responsible adult to unplug. But at a time when roughly one-third of people report not getting enough sleep, more naps, albeit short ones, might make for a more functional workforce, researchers say.  
        对于一位承担着诸多责任的成年人来说,周日下午在沙发上打个盹儿看起来是一种完美的小憩方式。但研究人员称,在据报约有三分之一的人睡眠不足的时代,更多的小睡――即便只是短暂的小睡――可能会有利于造就一支更高效的劳动力大军。  
        Sleep experts break sleep down into several stages, which the brain cycles through roughly every 90 to 120 minutes. These stages are broadly characterized into non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. NREM is further broken down into stage one and two, which are considered light and intermediate sleep, followed by slow-wave sleep. Awakening from slow-wave sleep, the deepest kind, results in what doctors call sleep inertia or sleep drunkenness: that groggy feeling that can take awhile to shake off. Finally, there's REM sleep, often associated with dreaming.  
        睡眠专家将睡眠分成几个阶段,大脑的一个循环周期约为90到120分钟。这些阶段大体可以分为非快速眼动睡眠(NREM)和快速眼动睡眠(REM)两种类型。前者又可进一步细分为阶段一和阶段二(它们分别被称为浅睡期和中度睡眠期)以及随后的慢波睡眠。从慢波睡眠这种最深层次的睡眠中醒来时,人们会经历医生所说的睡后迟钝或者叫睡醉:那种昏昏沉沉的感觉需要有一会儿才能将其摆脱。最后就是快速眼动睡眠,这个阶段通常会伴随着做梦。  
        Sara Mednick, an assistant psychology professor at the University of California, Riverside, said the most useful nap depends on what the napper needs.  
        加州大学河滨分校(University of California, Riverside)心理学助理教授萨拉?梅德尼克(Sara Mednick)说,什么样的小睡最为有用取决于小睡者的需求。  
        For a quick boost of alertness, experts say a 10-to-20-minute power nap is adequate for getting back to work in a pinch.  
        专家们说,为了快速醒脑,10到20分钟的日间小睡对于重新投入到紧张的工作中去是足够的了。  
        For cognitive memory processing, however, a 60-minute nap may do more good, Dr. Mednick said. Including slow-wave sleep helps with remembering facts, places and faces. The downside: some grogginess upon waking.  
        不过梅德尼克博士说,对于认知记忆而言,一次60分钟的休憩作用可能会更大。将慢波睡眠涵括在内的休息有助于对事实、地点和面孔的记忆。但弊端是:在醒来时,人会觉得有些昏昏沉沉的。  
        Finally, the 90-minute nap will likely involve a full cycle of sleep, which aids creativity and emotional and procedural memory, such as learning how to ride a bike. Waking up after REM sleep usually means a minimal amount of sleep inertia, Dr. Mednick said.  
        最后,90分钟的小睡很有可能包含了一个完整的睡眠周期,这将有助于增强创造力及情感、程序记忆,比如说学习如何骑自行车。梅德尼克博士说,从快速眼动睡眠中醒来通常意味着睡后迟钝感将减到最少。  
        Experts say the ideal time to nap is generally between the hours of 1 p.m. and 4 p.m. Napping later in the day could interfere with nighttime sleep.  
        专家们说,理想的小憩时间一般在下午一点到四点之间。再晚一些休息的话,可能就会影响夜间的睡眠。  
        The body's circadian rhythms help people to expect to be awake in the morning and early in the night. 'So if you take naps when your brain doesn't expect to be sleeping, you feel kind of thrown off,' contributing to the sleep inertia effect, said Rafael Pelayo, a clinical professor at Stanford University School of Medicine's Sleep Medicine Center.  
        人体内的生物钟帮助人们有着在上午和晚间较早的时候保持清醒的期许。斯坦福大学医学院睡眠医学中心(Stanford University School of Medicine's Sleep Medicine Center)临床教授拉斐尔?佩拉约(Rafael Pelayo)说:“如果你在大脑预期的睡觉时间之外打盹,就多少会有点迷惑困窘的感觉”,这是造成睡后迟钝影响的原因之一。  
        A telltale sign of being very sleep-deprived, he said, is dreaming during a short nap. 'Definitely in a 20-minute nap you should not be dreaming,' he said.  
        他还称,睡眠异常不足的一个明显信号就是在小憩时做梦。“在打个20分钟的小盹时正常是不应该做梦的。”  
        Ilene Rosen, an associate professor of clinical medicine at Penn's Perelman School of Medicine, said the ideal duration of a nap is still being debated, but generally speaking the '10-to-20-minute nap is really the optimal time in terms of bang for your buck.'  
        宾夕法尼亚大学佩雷尔曼医学院临床医学副教授艾琳?罗森(Ilene Rosen)称,理想的小睡时长应该是多少这个问题仍然没有定论,但一般而言,从追求高性价比的角度出发,10到20分钟真的是最佳的小睡时间长度。  
        Leon Lack, a psychology professor at Flinders University in Australia, found in a 2006 study in the journal Sleep that among shorter breaks, 10-minute naps packed the most punch.  
        澳大利亚佛林德斯大学(Flinders University)的心理学教授利昂?拉克(Leon Lack)的一篇研究论文在2006年发表在了《睡眠》(Sleep)期刊上,该论文指出,在时间较短的休息方式中,10分钟的小睡是最为有效的。  
        The study compared naps ranging from 30 seconds to 30 minutes, testing 24 participants at each of several intervals. After each nap the individuals were tested on a variety of mental-processing tasks. The sharpness of the 10-minute nappers became apparent 'right away,' Dr. Lack said, and remained apparent for about two to 2 1/2 hours.  
        该研究比较了从30秒钟到半个小时的时间长度各异的小睡,并在每一个间歇期对24名参与者进行了测试。在每次小睡结束后,参与者都被要求进行各种各样的思维任务。拉克博士说,小睡了10分钟的人“立马”就会变得清醒,并且在两到两个半小时内都能保持清醒。  
        Those who took 20- and 30-minute naps tended to feel groggy immediately after the nap for up to about 30 minutes. From there, they showed mental sharpness similar to what researchers saw from the 10-minute nappers, with that sharpness lasting a bit longer.  
        那些睡了20和30分钟的人在醒来后容易感觉昏昏沉沉,这种状态最多会持续约30分钟。在这之后,他们表现出的思维灵敏度与研究人员从小睡了10分钟的人身上观察到的颇为相似,但前者的这种灵敏度持续的时间会稍长一些。  
        Jonathan Brandl is a Newton, Mass.-based consultant who works from home. Up at 5 a.m. to hit the gym, he finds himself fading around 2 p.m. His solution is a fast snooze in a comfy chair in his den. His trick for waking up: He holds a pen or pencil in his hand, which usually falls about 10 to 15 minutes into his nap, waking him up.  
        马塞诸塞州纽顿市(Newton)的乔纳森?布兰德尔(Jonathan Brandl)是一位在家工作的咨询师。他清晨五点钟起来去健身房,在下午两点左右他会感觉自己变得精神萎靡。他的解决办法是窝在工作间一把舒适的椅子上打个小盹。布兰德尔有一套叫醒自己的办法:他在手里握一支钢笔或铅笔,这支笔一般会在他睡了10到15分钟时掉落下来,正好让他醒过来。  
        'After the nap, I feel totally refreshed and then power through the rest of the day,' the 56-year-old Mr. Brandl said.  
        现年56岁的布兰德尔说:“小睡以后,我感觉整个人精神抖擞。在一天余下的时间里,我觉得浑身都是劲儿。”  
        Though napping at work often remains taboo, experts say growing scientific evidence of its benefits has led select workplaces to accept it.  
        虽然在工作时打盹通常是大忌,但专家们称,有越来越多的科学证据证明小睡有益,这使得一些工作场所也开始接受员工打盹。  
        Christopher Lindholst, chief executive and co-founder of New York-based MetroNaps, has installed specially designed sleeping pods for Google, Huffington Post, an Iowa construction company and the Arizona Diamondbacks baseball team. The chairs retail for $8,995 to $12,985.  
        总部设在纽约的MetroNaps公司首席执行长及联合创始人克里斯托弗?林德霍斯特(Christopher Lindholst)已为谷歌(Google)、《赫芬顿邮报》(Huffington Post)、爱荷华州一家建筑公司及亚利桑纳响尾蛇棒球队(Arizona Diamondbacks)安装了专门设计的豆荚睡椅。这些睡椅零售价在8,995美金到12,985美金之间。  
        The 60-minute nap may not be kosher in most workplaces, but it also has its pluses.  
        在大多数的工作场所,长达60分钟的小睡可能都会显得不合适,但它也有自己的好处。  
        In a 2012 study in the journal Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, researchers split 36 college-aged students into three groups. Each group learned a memory task, pairing words on a screen with a sound. Afterward, one group had 60 minutes to nap, another 10 minutes. The final group didn't sleep.  
        《学习与记忆神经生物学》(Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)期刊2012年刊发了一项研究的论文,在该研究中,研究人员将36名大学生年纪的人分成了三组,每组参与者学习一项记忆任务――将屏幕上的单词与声音配对。之后,其中一组人小睡了60分钟,另一组小憩了10分钟,而最后一组则完全没睡。  
        Upon retesting, the napping groups fared better, as expected, said Sara Alger, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Notre Dame.  
        这一研究的首席作者、 母大学(University of Notre Dame)的博士后萨拉?阿尔杰(Sara Alger)说,经过重测发现,小睡过的那两组表现更佳,这与预期相符。  
        More interesting, she noted, was that on further testing, including a week later, the 60-minute group performed far better than the 10-minute group, which now performed as poorly as the non-napping group. The researchers concluded that slow-wave sleep -- only experienced by the 60-minute nappers -- is necessary for memory consolidation.  
        她指出,更有意思的是之后的进一步测试,包括在一周以后,小睡了60分钟的那组人比只睡了10分钟的那组表现要好得多,但只睡了10分钟的那组与完全没睡的那组表现一样地差。研究人员总结道,慢波睡眠――只有那些睡了60分钟的参与者才会经历的――是巩固记忆的必要条件。  
        Researchers continue to explore why some individuals don't seem to benefit from naps. Dr. Mednick said ongoing studies are looking at potential genetic differences between habitual and nonhabitual nappers.  
        研究人员还在继续探索为什么有些人似乎不能从小睡中获益。梅德尼克博士说,诸多正在进行中的研究正在探究习惯性与非习惯性小睡者之间的潜在遗传差异。  
        Kimberly Cote, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, said individuals who don't normally nap tend to slip into the deep stages of sleep more quickly than those who do. Studies have found through monitoring brain waves that regular nappers are good at maintaining a light sleep when they nap and show better performance improvements than their non-napping counterparts.  
        加拿大安大略省 凯瑟琳市(St. Catharines)布鲁克大学(Brock University)的心理学和神经科学教授金伯莉?科特(Kimberly Cote)说,与习惯小睡的人相比,那些平时不小睡的人通常会更快地进入深度睡眠阶段。通过监控脑电波进行的诸多研究已发现,与不常小睡的人相比,常小睡的人在小憩时更善于保持浅层睡眠,其状态提升也表现得更为优良。  
        'We're not sure what those individual differences are,' she said, 'if that's something that they've learned to do over time or if there's something biologically different that allows them to nap like that.'  
        她说:“我们不确定那些个体差异是什么。也许是他们久而久之习得养成的,或者是一些不同的生理特征使得他们能够以那样的方式小睡。”  
        Another trick to waking up perky after a short nap is to drink a cup of coffee before sleeping. Caffeine won't hurt such a short break and should lessen the effect of sleep inertia.  
        若想在打盹后精神抖擞地醒来,另一个诀窍是在睡前喝一杯咖啡。咖啡因不会影响如此短暂的休息,而且应该会减少睡后迟钝的影响。  
        Dr. Dinges recommends sleeping partially upright to make it easier to wake up. Studies, he said, have found that not laying totally flat results in avoiding falling into a deeper sleep.  
        丁格斯博士建议,让部分身体直立着小睡会使人更容易醒来。他说,诸多研究已发现,不要完全平躺着休息可以避免进入更深层的睡眠。  
        'A lot of people say, 'I only need four hours of sleep a night.' There's a few of them around but not very many,' he said.  
        他说:“很多人称,‘我一晚上只要睡四个小时。’我们身边确实有这样一小部分人,但这样的人并不多见。”  
  评论这张
 
阅读(7)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017