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【转载】完美小睡指南A Field Guide To The Perfect Nap  

2015-12-26 15:37:57|  分类: 医学知识 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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完美小睡指南A Field Guide To The Perfect Nap 

【转载】完美小睡指南A Field Guide To The Perfect Nap - liusongjifan2 - liusongjifan2的博客 发表于 2013-9-17 15:21:20 | 只看该作者 |只看大图 回帖奖励 [网页划词启用]
【转载】完美小睡指南A Field Guide To The Perfect Nap - liusongjifan2 - liusongjifan2的博客

        There's an art to napping.  
        Studies have found different benefits -- and detriments -- to a nap's timing, duration and even effect on different people, depending on one's age and possibly genetics.  
        'Naps are actually more complicated than we realize,' said David Dinges, a sleep scientist at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine. 'You have to be deliberative about when you're going to nap, how long you're going to nap and if you're trying to use the nap relative to work or what you have coming up.'  
        宾夕法尼亚大学佩雷尔曼医学院(Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine)的睡眠科学家戴维?丁格斯(David Dinges)说:“小睡实际上比我们所认识的更复杂。如果你想通过小睡来更好地应付相关工作或接下来的事情,那对于什么时候小睡、睡多长时间你应该审慎一些。”  
        A snooze on the couch on a Sunday afternoon may seem like the perfect way for a responsible adult to unplug. But at a time when roughly one-third of people report not getting enough sleep, more naps, albeit short ones, might make for a more functional workforce, researchers say.  
        Sleep experts break sleep down into several stages, which the brain cycles through roughly every 90 to 120 minutes. These stages are broadly characterized into non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. NREM is further broken down into stage one and two, which are considered light and intermediate sleep, followed by slow-wave sleep. Awakening from slow-wave sleep, the deepest kind, results in what doctors call sleep inertia or sleep drunkenness: that groggy feeling that can take awhile to shake off. Finally, there's REM sleep, often associated with dreaming.  
        Sara Mednick, an assistant psychology professor at the University of California, Riverside, said the most useful nap depends on what the napper needs.  
        加州大学河滨分校(University of California, Riverside)心理学助理教授萨拉?梅德尼克(Sara Mednick)说,什么样的小睡最为有用取决于小睡者的需求。  
        For a quick boost of alertness, experts say a 10-to-20-minute power nap is adequate for getting back to work in a pinch.  
        For cognitive memory processing, however, a 60-minute nap may do more good, Dr. Mednick said. Including slow-wave sleep helps with remembering facts, places and faces. The downside: some grogginess upon waking.  
        Finally, the 90-minute nap will likely involve a full cycle of sleep, which aids creativity and emotional and procedural memory, such as learning how to ride a bike. Waking up after REM sleep usually means a minimal amount of sleep inertia, Dr. Mednick said.  
        Experts say the ideal time to nap is generally between the hours of 1 p.m. and 4 p.m. Napping later in the day could interfere with nighttime sleep.  
        The body's circadian rhythms help people to expect to be awake in the morning and early in the night. 'So if you take naps when your brain doesn't expect to be sleeping, you feel kind of thrown off,' contributing to the sleep inertia effect, said Rafael Pelayo, a clinical professor at Stanford University School of Medicine's Sleep Medicine Center.  
        人体内的生物钟帮助人们有着在上午和晚间较早的时候保持清醒的期许。斯坦福大学医学院睡眠医学中心(Stanford University School of Medicine's Sleep Medicine Center)临床教授拉斐尔?佩拉约(Rafael Pelayo)说:“如果你在大脑预期的睡觉时间之外打盹,就多少会有点迷惑困窘的感觉”,这是造成睡后迟钝影响的原因之一。  
        A telltale sign of being very sleep-deprived, he said, is dreaming during a short nap. 'Definitely in a 20-minute nap you should not be dreaming,' he said.  
        Ilene Rosen, an associate professor of clinical medicine at Penn's Perelman School of Medicine, said the ideal duration of a nap is still being debated, but generally speaking the '10-to-20-minute nap is really the optimal time in terms of bang for your buck.'  
        宾夕法尼亚大学佩雷尔曼医学院临床医学副教授艾琳?罗森(Ilene Rosen)称,理想的小睡时长应该是多少这个问题仍然没有定论,但一般而言,从追求高性价比的角度出发,10到20分钟真的是最佳的小睡时间长度。  
        Leon Lack, a psychology professor at Flinders University in Australia, found in a 2006 study in the journal Sleep that among shorter breaks, 10-minute naps packed the most punch.  
        澳大利亚佛林德斯大学(Flinders University)的心理学教授利昂?拉克(Leon Lack)的一篇研究论文在2006年发表在了《睡眠》(Sleep)期刊上,该论文指出,在时间较短的休息方式中,10分钟的小睡是最为有效的。  
        The study compared naps ranging from 30 seconds to 30 minutes, testing 24 participants at each of several intervals. After each nap the individuals were tested on a variety of mental-processing tasks. The sharpness of the 10-minute nappers became apparent 'right away,' Dr. Lack said, and remained apparent for about two to 2 1/2 hours.  
        Those who took 20- and 30-minute naps tended to feel groggy immediately after the nap for up to about 30 minutes. From there, they showed mental sharpness similar to what researchers saw from the 10-minute nappers, with that sharpness lasting a bit longer.  
        Jonathan Brandl is a Newton, Mass.-based consultant who works from home. Up at 5 a.m. to hit the gym, he finds himself fading around 2 p.m. His solution is a fast snooze in a comfy chair in his den. His trick for waking up: He holds a pen or pencil in his hand, which usually falls about 10 to 15 minutes into his nap, waking him up.  
        马塞诸塞州纽顿市(Newton)的乔纳森?布兰德尔(Jonathan Brandl)是一位在家工作的咨询师。他清晨五点钟起来去健身房,在下午两点左右他会感觉自己变得精神萎靡。他的解决办法是窝在工作间一把舒适的椅子上打个小盹。布兰德尔有一套叫醒自己的办法:他在手里握一支钢笔或铅笔,这支笔一般会在他睡了10到15分钟时掉落下来,正好让他醒过来。  
        'After the nap, I feel totally refreshed and then power through the rest of the day,' the 56-year-old Mr. Brandl said.  
        Though napping at work often remains taboo, experts say growing scientific evidence of its benefits has led select workplaces to accept it.  
        Christopher Lindholst, chief executive and co-founder of New York-based MetroNaps, has installed specially designed sleeping pods for Google, Huffington Post, an Iowa construction company and the Arizona Diamondbacks baseball team. The chairs retail for $8,995 to $12,985.  
        总部设在纽约的MetroNaps公司首席执行长及联合创始人克里斯托弗?林德霍斯特(Christopher Lindholst)已为谷歌(Google)、《赫芬顿邮报》(Huffington Post)、爱荷华州一家建筑公司及亚利桑纳响尾蛇棒球队(Arizona Diamondbacks)安装了专门设计的豆荚睡椅。这些睡椅零售价在8,995美金到12,985美金之间。  
        The 60-minute nap may not be kosher in most workplaces, but it also has its pluses.  
        In a 2012 study in the journal Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, researchers split 36 college-aged students into three groups. Each group learned a memory task, pairing words on a screen with a sound. Afterward, one group had 60 minutes to nap, another 10 minutes. The final group didn't sleep.  
        《学习与记忆神经生物学》(Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)期刊2012年刊发了一项研究的论文,在该研究中,研究人员将36名大学生年纪的人分成了三组,每组参与者学习一项记忆任务――将屏幕上的单词与声音配对。之后,其中一组人小睡了60分钟,另一组小憩了10分钟,而最后一组则完全没睡。  
        Upon retesting, the napping groups fared better, as expected, said Sara Alger, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Notre Dame.  
        这一研究的首席作者、 母大学(University of Notre Dame)的博士后萨拉?阿尔杰(Sara Alger)说,经过重测发现,小睡过的那两组表现更佳,这与预期相符。  
        More interesting, she noted, was that on further testing, including a week later, the 60-minute group performed far better than the 10-minute group, which now performed as poorly as the non-napping group. The researchers concluded that slow-wave sleep -- only experienced by the 60-minute nappers -- is necessary for memory consolidation.  
        Researchers continue to explore why some individuals don't seem to benefit from naps. Dr. Mednick said ongoing studies are looking at potential genetic differences between habitual and nonhabitual nappers.  
        Kimberly Cote, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, said individuals who don't normally nap tend to slip into the deep stages of sleep more quickly than those who do. Studies have found through monitoring brain waves that regular nappers are good at maintaining a light sleep when they nap and show better performance improvements than their non-napping counterparts.  
        加拿大安大略省 凯瑟琳市(St. Catharines)布鲁克大学(Brock University)的心理学和神经科学教授金伯莉?科特(Kimberly Cote)说,与习惯小睡的人相比,那些平时不小睡的人通常会更快地进入深度睡眠阶段。通过监控脑电波进行的诸多研究已发现,与不常小睡的人相比,常小睡的人在小憩时更善于保持浅层睡眠,其状态提升也表现得更为优良。  
        'We're not sure what those individual differences are,' she said, 'if that's something that they've learned to do over time or if there's something biologically different that allows them to nap like that.'  
        Another trick to waking up perky after a short nap is to drink a cup of coffee before sleeping. Caffeine won't hurt such a short break and should lessen the effect of sleep inertia.  
        Dr. Dinges recommends sleeping partially upright to make it easier to wake up. Studies, he said, have found that not laying totally flat results in avoiding falling into a deeper sleep.  
        'A lot of people say, 'I only need four hours of sleep a night.' There's a few of them around but not very many,' he said.  
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